A randomized controlled trial comparing a telemedicine therapeutic intervention with routine care in adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus treated by insulin pumps.

Source: Yaron, M., et al. 2019 - Pubmed ID: 30783823

Setting: Israel, Diabetes center

Study design:



Follow up: 12 months

Patient group:

Sample size:

Total: 67

IG: 31

CG: 36


Inclusion criteria:

  • Diabetes type 1 treated with insulin pump
  • Age > 22 years
Type of technology:

Home monitoring

  • Glucometer


  • Downloading and transmitting data

Phone call

  • Feedback and recommendations

Intervention:  Patients download and transmit data once a month. Physicians review data and document recommendations. Study coordinator informed patients about updated recommendations via phone call. Face to face visits in clinic once in 6 months.


Duration: 12 months
Add on:  


Control group: Usual care with 3 month interval face to face visits with physician

Clinical effect/ Patient safety:

Clinical effect:

  • HbA1c →
  • Hypoglycemic events →
  • Diabetic ketoacidosis →
  • Proportion achieved target HbA1c →
  • QoL →

Patient safety:

  • Hypoglycemic events →
  • Diabetic ketoacidosis →
Patient experiences/ Staff experiences:

Patient experiences: 

  • High satisfaction


Staff experiences:

  • Physicians spent a mean 4.6 min per transmission reviewing the data and documenting recommendations. The study coordinator spent a mean 3.4 min per contact providing feedback to patients, for a mean 7.8 transmissions per participant.
Costs and organization:



  • Glucometer

Staff resources

  • Development of website (https://www.professional.medtronicdiabetes.com/carelink-system)



Staff resources

  • Monitoring, documenting and conducting feedback on clinical data



  • Direct total cost 24% higher in control group
  • Indirect medical expenses decreased in intervention group by 22%


Health care utilization: NA

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“↑”: Statistically significant increase

“↓”: Statistically significant decrease

“→”: Statistically insignificant (no difference)