An Intervention by a Patient-Designed Do-It-Yourself Mobile Device App Reduces HbA1c in Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes: A Randomized Double-Crossover Study.

Source: Klee, P., et al. 2018 - Pubmed ID: 30403495

Setting: Switzerland, University hospital

Study design:

RCT (crossover)


Follow up: 9 months

Patient group:

Sample size:

Total: 55

Group A: Intervention 28 control 20 (20)

Group B: Control 27 Intervention 26 (13)


Inclusion criteria:

  • Age 10-18 years
  • Type 1 diabetes
Type of technology:

App (webdia)

  • Datatransfer
  • Education
  • Monitoring




Intervention period:  Patients created an account on the app which allows for remote access to blood glucose data by both patient and diabetology team. Blood glucose values were reviewed every month by the diabetologists and suggestions for treatment adaptation were sent to the participants by e-mail.

3 months
Add on:


Control period: Usual care, patient allowed to contact the diabetology team by usual means (telephone and email), if she/he felt that the insulin regimen needed adaptations.

Clinical effect/ Patient safety:

Clinical effect:

  • HbA1c →
  • Hypoglycemic events →
  • QoL →

Patient safety:

Patient experiences/ Staff experiences:

Patient experiences:

  • 80% used Webdia everyday
  • Highly satisfaction


Staff experiences: NA

Costs and organization:

Staff resources

  • Development of App
  • Education for medical team regarding how to use the App


  • Blood sugar messure

Staff resources

  • Monitoring and emailing


Health care utilization:

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“↑”: Statistically significant increase

“↓”: Statistically significant decrease

“→”: Statistically insignificant (no difference)